A retro in football, a dunk in basketball or the run out in a race: well-known terms for sports enthusiasts. But have you ever heard of a rear naked choke or a haymaker? In the run-up to the London MMA evening at Cage Warriors, with our compatriot Jan Quaeyhaegens, who prevailed against the Italian Alberto Ciardo, a round of terminology and the most important rules of mixed martial arts explained. Sports where elbows are allowed to fly around.
Mixed martial arts (MMA): an all-around martial art. It is a mix of various recognized martial arts such as kickboxing, karate, judo, wrestling, Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, taekwondo and boxing. MMA uses the most effective techniques of each martial art and discipline. This means that standing techniques are combined with ground techniques. This is how a perfect self-defence and competitive sport came about.
A bout consists of three rounds of five minutes each (championship bouts typically last five rounds) and can be won or “ended” in a variety of ways. The three most important:
Ko (KO): If a fighter loses consciousness from a punch or kick, he loses the match.
Technical knockout (TKO): If a fighter can no longer defend himself intelligently, a referee can decide to end the fight. This can also be done in consultation or on the advice of the ring doctor who decides that a fighter has taken too much damage.
Presentation: if a fighter knocks during the fight (beat) or gives up verbally, he loses by submission. Usually this is due to an arm or leg pinch or strangulation (throttle). Strangulation can be done in two ways: by squeezing the windpipe or through the carotid artery to prevent blood from entering the brain.
If after three or five rounds there is still no winner, the fight goes to the judges. Three judges give their verdict and the fighter with the most judges behind him wins the fight. Each round is scored using what’s known as the “10-Point Must System” adopted from boxing. In each round, the judges determine a winner and give that fighter ten points, after which the opponent gets nine points or less (depending on how they fought). At the end, all points are added up and a winner is determined.
UFC: Ultimate Battle Championship. The largest and most famous organization in the world with the best fighters under the care of Dana White. The Champions League of MMA, so to speak. Every fighter’s dream. Another top promoter, but a little less well known, is Bellator. Below that you have two major leagues: the ONE championship and also PFC (Professional Fighting Championships). Cage Warrior (CW) and the Polish organization KSWwhere our compatriots Donovan ‘Vegas’ Desmae and Artur Szczepaniak play is best compared to Europa League competitions.
The most important techniques:
Note: Techniques where you try to take your opponent down. This can be done with a judo throw, but just as well with a spectacular one flying triangle, where you jump up unexpectedly to try and choke the opponent’s neck with your legs. Important in takedowns is the removal of support points.
ground combat: a very important part of martial arts. Research shows that 99% of all fights end on the ground. In Brazilian Jiu Jitsu you learn how to fight on the ground.
Kicks and punches: With it you can either keep someone at a distance or try to take someone out.
The most famous shots:
jab: a direct thrust from the front hand
Gore: a direct hit from the hindquarters
Hook: Bow attack, usually from the front hand
uppercut : Punches vertically up. Your arm forms a ‘U’
haymaker: like a hook, but with the elbow less bent
Elbow: elbow strike
hammer fist: Usually used by the attacker when the opponent is down. Hitting the bottom of the fist like a hammer, usually on the head
Spinning Back Fist: a backfist punch with a twist
The most famous staircase:
Low Kick: arched kick to the thigh
Round kick: arched kick to the waist
High Kick: arcing kick to the head
side kick: Side kick to the leg or waist
Frontal kick: Frontal kick to abdomen or head
Stomp Kick: step with the foot
Ground Combat Techniques:
Assembly: You are in front of/on top of the opponent
guard: Pinch your opponent with legs from behind, can Full/closed guard are where both legs are crossed, but also open watch And half guard
Rear Mount/Rear Mount: on the opponent’s back
Mounted on the side: from a side position
Knees on stomach: Kneel on the opponent’s stomach
The most spectacular forms of submission:
Armbar: Bracket at the elbow
Naked choke rear: strangulation from behind
Guillotine: strangulation from the front
Kimura: clamp at the shoulder
Delta choke: strangulation with the legs
Knee bar: brace at the knee
heel hook: Clamp at the ankle and rotate the knee
The different MMA tactics:
Sprawl and Brawl: Fight while standing. Neutralize the takedown and subsequent ground fight
Clinch fights: Fight in clinch: punches, elbows, knees
Grind and Crush: Breaking the opponent with blows to the ground (in mount, cover or half cover), not only standard blows, but also hammer blows.
Grappling Submission: Fight on the ground, with clamps and chokes
The different weight classes:
Light heavyweight: 84-93kg
Medium weight: 77-84kg
Bantam weight: 57-61kg
In cage fighting, it is sometimes said that everything is allowed in the octagon. Which is not true – otherwise it would not be a sport. The following things are forbidden and can be penalized with minus points:
• Burning in the eyes
• Hair pulling
• Attack on the crotch
• Punches or kicks to the back of the head and spine
• Punches or kicks in the neck
• Attacks on small joints (phalanges)
• Throw your opponent out of the ring or cage
• Exit the ring
• Holding the ring/cage
•Holding opponent’s pants or gloves
Source : HLN